The pay gap
The Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) is the source for calculating the pay gap which is published late autumn every year. ASHE reports the pay gap using the mean and the median hourly earnings of men working full-time compared to women working full-time and women working part-time.
The pay gap in Scotland is reported using the mean. In 2016 provisional results indicated that the gender pay gap in Scotland is:
- 14.9% (comparison of men's combined hourly earnings with women's combined hourly earnings, using the mean)
- 32.2% (comparison men's full-time hourly earnings with women's part-time hourly earnings, using the mean)
In Scotland the gender pay gap is reported using the mean, as the median figures underplay the fact that there are a few extremely high earning staff, most of whom are men, and that many women are clustered in the lowest paid professions. The mean takes into account the outliers and reflects the structural inequality between men and women and the issues relating to vertical occupational segregation.
In some cases the gender pay gap is reported as one figure combining full and part time earnings. This can again hide a number of systemic structural problems which cause the pay gap.
On average women in Scotland earn £182.90 per week less than men.
- Women account for 49% of the labour market.
- 42% of women employed in Scotland work part-time compared to 13% of men employed in Scotland.
- Women account for 76% of all part-time workers in Scotland.
Women working in Scotland are more likely to be concentrated in certain industries, for example 48% of working women work in Public Administration, Education and Health industries. Women represent over half of workers in only 6 of the 20 Standard Industry Classifications, whereas men tend to be more evenly spread across industry groups.
- Around 80% of administrative and secretarial workers and those in personal service jobs are women.
- Women are more likely to work in the public sector (67% local government and 81% NHS), but only a third of chief executive officers are women.
- 97% of childcare and early years education are women and 98% of classroom assistants are women.
- Less than 3% of chartered civil engineers in Scotland are women.
- 10% of senior managers in science engineering and technology professions are women.
- Modern Apprentices continue to be gender segregated where women accounted for only 2% of engineers in training in 2012 and 93% of hairdressers.
Table 1: Mean hourly gross pay, excluding overtime for male and female employees in Scotland by occupational group 2015
*Read as: percentage difference between men and women's hourly gross pay according to occupational group. Source ONS Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings provisional results 2015.
In this section …
Close the Gap Working Paper 14- Gender Pay Gap Statistics This paper is an updated version of Working Paper 11 Statistics published in 2014.
CTG Working Paper 11: Statistics This paper is an update to the previous statistics publication.
CTG Working Paper 16: Statistics This paper is an updated version of Working Paper 14 Statistics published in 2015.
CTG Working Paper 4: Statistics This short paper discusses the gender pay gap statistics, how they are generated and why different figures are reported for Scotland and the UK.
CTG Working Paper 5: Statistics This paper is an update to the previous statistics publication, Working Paper 4.
CTG Working Paper 6: Invisible women, employment data collection in Scottish local government As part of a joint initiative with the STUC Women's Committee, Close the Gap conducted research which was intended to assess the impact of current public spending cuts on women's employment in local government in Scotland, and to determine whether the anecdotal evidence is indicative of a shifting pattern of employment practice.